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Further Reading I vividly remember one of my first sightings of a large software project. I was taking a summer internship at a large English electronics company.
My manager, part of the QA group, gave me a tour of a site and we entered a huge depressing warehouse stacked full with cubes. I was told that this project had been in development for a couple of years and was currently integrating, and had been integrating for several months.
My guide told me that nobody really knew how long it would take to finish integrating. From this I learned a common story of software projects: But this needn't be the way. Most projects done by my colleagues at ThoughtWorks, A description of the essay about smell by many others around the world, treat integration as a non-event.
Any individual developer's work is only a few hours away from a shared project state and can be integrated back into that state in minutes.
Any integration errors are found rapidly and can be fixed rapidly. This contrast isn't the result of an expensive and complex tool. The essence of it lies in the simple practice of everyone on the team integrating frequently, usually daily, against a controlled source code repository. The original article on Continuous Integration describes our experiences as Matt helped put together continuous integration on a ThoughtWorks project in When I've described this practice to people, I commonly find two reactions: What people find out as they try it is that it's much easier than it sounds, and that it makes a huge difference to development.
Thus the third common reaction is "yes we do that - how could you live without it? When I started at ThoughtWorks, as a consultant, I encouraged the project I was working with to use the technique. Matthew Foemmel turned my vague exhortations into solid action and we saw the project go from rare and complex integrations to the non-event I described.
Matthew and I wrote up our experience in the original version of this paper, which has been one of the most popular papers on my site. Although Continuous Integration is a practice that requires no particular tooling to deploy, we've found that it is useful to use a Continuous Integration server.
The best known such server is CruiseControl, an open source tool originally built by several people at ThoughtWorks and now maintained by a wide community. Since then several other CI servers have appeared, both open source and commercial - including Cruise from ThoughtWorks Studios.
Building a Feature with Continuous Integration The easiest way for me to explain what CI is and how it works is to show a quick example of how it works with the development of a small feature. Let's assume I have to do something to a piece of software, it doesn't really matter what the task is, for the moment I'll assume it's small and can be done in a few hours.
We'll explore longer tasks, and other issues later on. I begin by taking a copy of the current integrated source onto my local development machine. I do this by using a source code management system by checking out a working copy from the mainline. The above paragraph will make sense to people who use source code control systems, but be gibberish to those who don't.
So let me quickly explain that for the latter.
A source code control system keeps all of a project's source code in a repository. The current state of the system is usually referred to as the 'mainline'.
At any time a developer can make a controlled copy of the mainline onto their own machine, this is called 'checking out'. The copy on the developer's machine is called a 'working copy'.
Most of the time you actually update your working copy to the mainline - in practice it's the same thing. Now I take my working copy and do whatever I need to do to complete my task. This will consist of both altering the production code, and also adding or changing automated tests.
Continuous Integration assumes a high degree of tests which are automated into the software: Often these use a version of the popular XUnit testing frameworks. Once I'm done and usually at various points when I'm working I carry out an automated build on my development machine.
This takes the source code in my working copy, compiles and links it into an executable, and runs the automated tests. Only if it all builds and tests without errors is the overall build considered to be good. With a good build, I can then think about committing my changes into the repository. The twist, of course, is that other people may, and usually have, made changes to the mainline before I get chance to commit.
So first I update my working copy with their changes and rebuild. If their changes clash with my changes, it will manifest as a failure either in the compilation or in the tests.A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about using words that appeal to your sense of smell, hearing, see, touch, and taste.
A descriptive essay lets you use words that. Explore how to use sensory details to enhance your description and importance of setting.
Plus, see examples of setting and learn how to create mood in writing. How to Write a Descriptive Essay: Example and 44 Topic Ideas Great Descriptive Essay Topics to Choose From Descriptive Essay Topics for 8 Grade Topics for Descriptive Essays High School Descriptive Essay Topics for Middle School Descriptive Essay Topics for College Descriptive Essay Examples to Look at Before Get Started Guidelines How to Write a Descriptive Essay How to Write .
Writers use the descriptive essay to create a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay, which reveals meaning through a personal story, the purpose of a descriptive essay is to reveal the meaning of a subject through detailed, sensory observation.
Writing an essay about a personal experience or relationship can be a powerful way of both discovering the meaning of your own past and sharing that past with others. Students are asked to write literary analysis essays because this type of assignment encourages you to think about how and why a poem, short story, novel, or play was written.
To successfully analyze literature, you’ll need to remember that authors make specific choices for particular reasons.