Conrad HabichtMaurice Solovine and Einstein. After graduating inEinstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February but for medical reasons was not conscripted. With the help of Marcel Grossmann 's father, he secured a job in Bern at the Federal Office for Intellectual Propertythe patent office,   as an assistant examiner — level III.
In particular, the moral values which Gandhi practically illustrated in his community-oriented experiments in agriculture are persistently advanced as profound and credible answers to the ever-intensifying crisis now confronting India.
As India prepares for the third millennium and celebrates 50 years of independence from the British raj, its much neglected Gandhian economic thought and praxis demand an exhaustive re-examination. Swaraj as Gandhi repeatedly clarified, however, is not only political.
It is only with this Gandhian understanding of swaraj that the real dangers of division and dependency -- arising from communal forces, corrupt local and national leaders, international financial institutions, and multinational corporations -- can be resolutely confronted.
In fact, the main and practical contention of this work is that the six ethical and moral principles -- swadeshi, aparigraha, bread labor, trusteeship, non-exploitation, and equality-together with the concept of swaraj have contemporary relevance and need uncompromising integration into Indian planning.
As a point of departure, I have examined the implications of my suggestion only in relation to the agricultural sector. The Gandhian vision which I have portrayed is a means to rejuvenate the entire nation and all its other important sectors.
Therefore, programs for social change and planning exercises in agriculture, on macro- or micro-levels, must be grounded in these moral values. An awareness of Gandhi's philosophy in national planning and transformation of an agricultural society has not been totally absent in India during the post-independence years.
As I have demonstrated- especially through exploration of current experiments and writings of Indian economists and planners-the contrary holds true.
In fact, it is the volunteer-based, non-governmental organizations NGOsfor the most part, which are assiduously working in a variety of areas to steer the people towards implementing, albeit selective aspects, Gandhi's Constructive Programme on a micro-level basis.
Therefore, in different pockets of the vast nation people, particularly the poor and marginalized, are not only accepting Gandhian methods in their lives and economic activities, but gradually converting government officials and agencies to follow their lead.
This, though an important Ethical dimensions of gandhi significant step, is clearly insufficient when the dimensions of the crisis are considered. The inadequacy of the response is located in serious and distressing trends towards massive industrialization and mindless consumerism, in urban areas and towns, resulting in high unemployment and diversion of scarce resources.
Together with these tendencies there is the more harmful disregard of moral and ethical principles.
Here Gandhi's vision encounters its toughest challenge. This clearly is not so. The adoption of satyagraha 'The way to it [swaraj] is through satyagraha' and nonviolent noncooperation will oblige the elected political representatives to honestly execute the wishes of the poor and oppressed millions in the rural areas and effectively stop those programs which are not in the interests of the entire polity.
In situations where the representatives do not act according to the wishes of the people, Gandhi said 'we can protest and teach people to resist and make it clear to the Government that it cannot look us in this manner. As a valid basis for social change in the interests of the entire community there is enough to be learnt from the selfless dedication of Ela Bhatt, Baburao Hazare, and the villagers of Seed.
What is crucial to recognize, as Gandhi repeatedly asserted in Hind Swaraj, is that adoption of either modernity or tradition has to enhance both the spiritual and the material well-being of the individual and society. Gandhi's philosophy and experiments in agriculture cannot be construed simply as a return to tradition, which they are in a very crude sense.
Gandhi's vision for free India, even the struggle for independence, explicitly depended on whether it brought 'bread to the mouths of the people That the present course of planning, as my critique of India's various Five Year Plans indicates, has enslaved and oppressed millions of poor Indians, especially in the agrarian sector, is a truism.
A fundamental moral change has to be effected. In time this will make them self-sufficient and provide gainful employment to all. As a consequence, cultivators and peasants will be motivated to increase selectively the productivity of impoverished soils through adoption of scientific methods, and ensuring that critical agricultural output keeps ahead of population increase.
Once this balance is achieved, then local self-help work projects will feed, clothe, and educate every child, woman and man. Simultaneously, local initiatives can foster the production of goods in cottage industries for primary consumption based on the principles of need and consequently exchange.
In such a positive and caring environment resolution of disputes through harmonious reconciliation of competing interests and appeals to the rich and elite to respond to their dharma is possible.
These steps will recreate the fervor, which once ignited the nation, for authentic swaraj. The skills and resources for these enterprises exist. Baburao Hazare's inspiring example in the village of Ralegan Siddhi to truthfully take on this responsibility and carry it on in a nonviolent manner is an eloquent testimony to what can be achieved through collective human grit and pragmatism.
That simple experiment needs to be repeated in whatever relevant and applicable form, given India's diversity, in the millions of Indian villages.
What is certainly lacking is the political will and integrity on the part of India's elected leaders and the necessary enduring faith so pivotal for such an undertaking. This is why the crisis affecting India in its agricultural sector, and for that matter in other areas of its economy, is not entirely structural.
The problem is at its core a crisis in human values. From Gandhi's early efforts in Phoenix to those at Sevagram, he diligently inculcated in his followers certain universal principles.
He repeated the same experiments, namely, of creating community-oriented work projects, ensuring that the fundamental needs of the poorest were firmly kept in sight, and providing basic human necessities. If India can revert to rechanneling its massive human resources towards these endeavors through a commitment to the Gandhian path it can resolve its crisis.
Today in some communities in developed countries there are susmined and solid agricultural programs for use of organic methods; a decreasing dependence on governments for initiatives; decentralization as a basis for local government; cooperatives for mutual sharing of all kinds of resources; and a deep consciousness that the environment is a finite and fragile entity.
It may well be that Gandhian ideas find a fertile soil in societies which see the bane of affluence and taste the bitter fruits of inhuman and excessive industrialization. Whatever the reasons for India's earlier lack of political initiative in adopting Gandhi's ideas and experiments in restructuring Indian agriculture, the choice today is between death and life for the millions of poor people who are caught in this human tragedy.Gene Sharp (January 21, – January 28, ) was the founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the study of nonviolent action, and a retired professor of political science at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.
He was known for his extensive writings on nonviolent struggle, which have influenced numerous anti-government resistance. DIY ethic refers to the ethic of self-sufficiency through completing tasks without the aid of a paid expert.
Literally meaning "do it yourself", the DIY ethic promotes the idea that anyone is capable of performing a variety of tasks rather than relying on paid webkandii.com DIY ethic requires that the adherent seeks out the knowledge required to complete a given task.
ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF GANDHI Mohan Chanda Karam Chand Gandhi popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi all over the world. He was also called as the father of nation by one of the greatest revolutionaries of the world Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.
Though Gandhi is one of the most written-about figures of the twentieth century, this is the first book to apply lessons from his life to the practical tasks faced by contemporary leaders-from corporate managers and executives to government administrators, nonprofit professionals, educators, and others.
Gandhi has become a phenomenal figure because of his ethical dimensions. A life which was not lived on moral principles was futile. He accentuated on the need for infusing our politics with conscience. Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, and Pauline webkandii.com , the family moved to Munich, where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J.
Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current.