Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology.
These devices eventually led to the PowerPoint and now on to the Infographic. Good question, but since computers offer so much in the way of education, I think computers are the best thing to happen in the classroom since the blackboard. I want to include the Cuban and Strudler quotes as they put a contemporary spin on the evolution of education technology.
Students attended school for between one and six months a year and there were few educational tools available. But as increasing numbers of American communities were settled the education system became more firmly established.
To aid the learning process, educational technologies, such as slates, hornbooks, blackboards, and books were introduced. Over time, a variety of technologies such as film, radio, television, teaching machines, microcomputers and the Internet have been introduced to schools, each sparking controversy about its usefulness for schooling and effectiveness as a teaching and learning aid.
Nearly two centuries later Stephen Dayne brought the first printing press used in the United States Rubinstein, However, since they were expensive and were not readily available, books were not commonly used in the early years of American schooling. In lieu of printed books, American settlers improvised with a device known as the hornbook.
Adopted from England, the hornbook was one of the first forms of educational technology used to aid in teaching reading in American schools. Although it was useful at the time, the hornbook became obsolete as the cost of printing decreased and texts became more widely available.
Introduced to schools inthe New England Primer was intended to make learning to read more interesting for children. The evolution of these primitive textbooks allowed teachers to follow a predefined sequence of lesson plans that taught students how to read and write.
In this way, early books served as a tool that began to standardize the content to which students were exposed. Students would use a sandbox on their desk to practice the alphabet: Lancaster chose sandboxes because they were the most economically affordable form of technology available at the time.
With the decline of this teaching method, the use of monitors and sandboxes ended. Later the sandboxes would be replaced by individual slates. Although they were more expensive, slates allowed students to practice their writing skills more easily. Erasing chalk from a slate was quicker and cleaner than ironing the surface of the sandbox.
Shortly thereafter, Horace Mann began encouraging communities to buy chalkboards for their classrooms. By the late s, the chalkboard had become a permanent fixture in most classrooms.
Blackboard As with many forms of educational technology, learning how to integrate the chalkboard into classroom instruction was not an easy task.
Similar to more modem forms of educational technology, the chalkboard also received praise from community leaders. Thinking of the blackboard as a revolutionary form of educational technology seems counterintuitive.
But it is one of the few types of media that has survived the test of time and is still regularly used in classrooms today. The predecessor to the slide machine, the magic lantern projected images on glass plates.
The three dimensional devices, which were popular in home parlors, were sold to schools featuring educational sets containing hundreds of images. FILM During the next several decades, the American educational system expanded and became more developed. The price of producing paper and printing books also dropped to levels that enabled paper to replace slates and allowed each child to have his or her own books.
But just as books were becoming widely available to students, a new form of educational technology began to emerge, namely film. Film Strip Projector The kinetoscope, which is now known as the motion picture, was invented in Over the next decade, film equipment was developed and refined.
And inCharles Urban of London began exhibiting the first educational films. InThomas Edison also contributed to the use of film in the classroom by producing a series on the American Revolution. With the rapid growth of American schools, both in terms of the number of schools and the quantity of students attending those schools, there was a pressing need to provide standard, high-quality instruction to large numbers of students.
At the time, some proponents believed that using film in classrooms met this important educational need. Scholars will soon be instructed through the eye. It is possible to touch every branch of human knowledge with the motion picture.
In Frank Freeman classified the existing educational films into the following four categories: Despite the explosion of educational films, conflict emerged between the commercial interests and the educational interests of the film industry.Social media are really a sub-category of computer technology, but their development deserves a section of its own in the history of educational technology.
Social media cover a wide range of different technologies, including blogs, wikis, You Tube videos, mobile devices such as phones and tablets, Twitter, Skype and Facebook.
Educational Film •The earliest forerunners of the educational film were the newsreel, travelogue, and the scientific motion picture.