Thinking and Critical Thinking Every human being is capable of thinking, but some say that few are able to practice critical thinking. Thinking is the mental process, the act and the ability to produce thoughts.
When examining the vast literature on critical thinking, various definitions of critical thinking emerge. Here are some samples: To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, 2. To recast the thinking in improved form" Center for Critical Thinking, c.
Perhaps the simplest definition is offered by Beyer Basically, Beyer sees critical thinking as using criteria to judge the quality of something, from cooking to a conclusion of a research paper. In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something statements, news stories, arguments, research, etc.
Characteristics of Critical Thinking Wade identifies eight characteristics of critical thinking. Critical thinking involves asking questions, defining a problem, examining evidence, analyzing assumptions and biases, avoiding emotional reasoning, avoiding oversimplification, considering other interpretations, and tolerating ambiguity.
Another characteristic of critical thinking identified by many sources is metacognition. In the book, Critical Thinking, Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking.
Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded, value fair-mindedness, respect evidence and reasoning, respect clarity and precision, look at different points of view, and will change positions when reason leads them to do so.
To think critically, must apply criteria. Need to have conditions that must be met for something to be judged as believable. Although the argument can be made that each subject area has different criteria, some standards apply to all subjects. Is a statement or proposition with supporting evidence.
Critical thinking involves identifying, evaluating, and constructing arguments. The ability to infer a conclusion from one or multiple premises. To do so requires examining logical relationships among statements or data.
In a search for understanding, critical thinkers view phenomena from many different points of view. Procedures for Applying Criteria: Other types of thinking use a general procedure.
Critical thinking makes use of many procedures.
These procedures include asking questions, making judgments, and identifying assumptions. Why Teach Critical Thinking? Through technology, the amount of information available today is massive.
This information explosion is likely to continue in the future.
Students need a guide to weed through the information and not just passively accept it. As mentioned in the section, Characteristics of Critical Thinkingcritical thinking involves questioning. It is important to teach students how to ask good questions, to think critically, in order to continue the advancement of the very fields we are teaching.
Beyer sees the teaching of critical thinking as important to the very state of our nation. He argues that to live successfully in a democracy, people must be able to think critically in order to make sound decisions about personal and civic affairs.
If students learn to think critically, then they can use good thinking as the guide by which they live their lives. Teaching Strategies to Help Promote Critical Thinking TheVolume 22, issue 1, of the journal, Teaching of Psychologyis devoted to the teaching critical thinking.
Most of the strategies included in this section come from the various articles that compose this issue. What question related to this session remains uppermost in your mind?A Foundation for The Logic of Teaching Richard Paul and Linda Elder March 22, The first and most important insight necessary for the appropriate design of instruction and curriculum is that content is, in the last analysis, nothing more nor less than a mode of thinking.
References: Tips for teaching critical thinking to kids. Abrami PC, Bernard RM, Borokhovski E, Wadem A, Surkes M A, Tamim R, Zhang D. Instructional interventions affecting critical thinking skills and dispositions: a stage 1 meta-analysis.
How does the process of critical thinking you used relate to or differ from the process you used to find content for your answer? First, research on poverty in America reading some articles and credible sources to give me an idea and learn more about the subject.
Now I can see things much more clearly, and the formulation of questions I could understand %(7). Instead, design thinking welcomes the multi-dimensionality of a dynamic process and we have the liberty to juggle the stages in a manner that complies with our workflow or turns the thinking process .
Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument. Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing. Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Metropolitan Community College.
A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and.